|Use the terms ‘eukaryotic’ and ‘prokaryotic’ to describe types of cells|
|Describe the features of bacterial (prokaryotic) cells|
|Demonstrate an understanding of the scale and size of cells and be able to make order of magnitude calculations, inc standard form –
Our standard unit of length is the metre, which is a very human scale. Other measurements are made with multiples of metres, millimetres, kilometres etc.
Each division or multiplication by ten is termed an order of magnitude. Hence there is an order of magnitude between the height of a human being (2m) and the height of a pine tree (20 m).
When considering orders of magnitude the actual length may be approximated, it is the relative difference which is important.
For instance there are three orders of magnitude between a fly (1 cm) and a truck (10 m) as the truck is times longer than the fly.
|Recall the structures found in animal and plant (eukaryotic) cells inc algal cells|
|Use estimations and explain when they should be used to judge the relative size or area of sub-cellular structures|
|Required practical 1: use a light microscope to observe, draw and label a selection of plant and animal cells|
|Describe the functions of the structures in animal and plant (eukaryotic) cells|
|Describe what a specialised cell is, including examples for plants and animals|
|Describe what differentiation is, including differences between animals and plants –
cellular differentiation definition. The process by which a cell becomes specialised in order to perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell, a blood cell, or a neuron. There are more than 250 general types of cells in the human body.
|Define the terms magnification and resolution|
|Compare electron and light microscopes in terms of their magnification and resolution|
|Carry out calculations involving magnification using the formula: magnification = size of image/ size of real object -inc standard form|
|Describe how genetic information is stored in the nucleus of a cell (inc genes & chromosomes)|
|Describe the processes that happen during the cell cycle, including mitosis (inc recognise and describe where mitosis occurs)
|Describe stem cells, including sources of stem cells in plants and animals and their roles|
|Describe the use of stem cells in the production of plant clones and therapeutic cloning|
|Discuss the potential risks, benefits and issues with using stem cells in medical research/treatments (inc diabetes and paralysis)|