Communicable diseases

Explain what a pathogen is and how pathogens are spread (inc how viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi are spread in animals and plants)

Explain how pathogenic bacteria and viruses cause damage in the body
Explain how the spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented

Describe measles, HIV and tobacco mosaic virus as examples of viral pathogens
Describe salmonella food poisoning and gonorrhoea as examples of bacterial pathogens
Describe the signs, transmission and treatment of rose black spot infection in plants as an example of fungal pathogens
Describe the symptoms, transmission and control of malaria, including knowledge of the mosquito vector as an example of a prototist pathogen

Describe defences that stop pathogens entering the human body (inc skin, nose, trachea & windpipe, stomach)
Recall the role of the immune system
Describe how white blood cells destroy pathogens

Describe how vaccination works, including at the population level
Explain how antibiotics and painkillers are used to treat diseases, including their limitations
Describe how sources for drugs have changed over time and give some examples
Describe how new drugs are tested, including pre-clinical testing and clinical trials (inc double blind trials and placebos)